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Ken Norton
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Personal information
Real name: Kenneth Howard Norton
Nickname(s): "The Black Hercules"[1]

"The Jaw Breaker" or "The Fighting Marine"

Nationality: American
Date of birth: (1943-08-09) August 9, 1943 (age 74)
Place of birth: Jacksonville, Illinois, USA
Personal Statistics
Weight: {{convert/numdisp/fracExpression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[". Heavyweight|Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".|Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".|Heavyweight}}Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[". (Script error kg)
Reach: 80 inches (Script error cm)
Boxing career information

Kenneth Howard Norton Sr. (born August 9, 1943, Jacksonville, Illinois) is an American former heavyweight boxer and former WBC Heavyweight Champion. He is best known for his 12-round victory over Muhammad Ali, when he famously broke Ali's jaw, on March 31, 1973, becoming only the second man to defeat Ali as a professional (after Joe Frazier, who won a 15-round unanimous decision against Ali on March 8, 1971).

He and Ali would fight twice more in their trilogy, with Ali officially winning narrowly both return bouts, although many felt Norton truly deserved their third fight. Norton was awarded the WBC title (by virtue of his win over Jimmy Young in a 1977 title elimination bout) when Leon Spinks declined a mandated title defense against Norton, the number one contender. However, Norton lost it in his first defense on a split decision by 1 point to Larry Holmes in a great contest (Holmes-Norton is ranked as the 10th-greatest heavyweight fight of all time by Monte D. Cox, a member of the International Boxing Research Organization).

Early yearsEdit

Norton was an outstanding athlete at Jacksonville High School. He was a member of the state championship football team and was selected to the all-state team on defense as a senior in 1960. His track coach entered him in eight events, and Norton placed first in all of them. As a result, the "Ken Norton Rule", which limits participation of an athlete to a maximum of three track and field events, was instituted in Illinois high school sports. After graduating from high school, Norton went to Northeast Missouri State University (now Truman State University) on a football scholarship and studied elementary education.[2]

Boxing careerEdit

Norton started boxing when he was in the United States Marine Corps from 1963 to 1967, compiling a 24-2 record en route to three All-Marine Heavyweight titles.[3] [4]Following the National AAU finals in 1967, he turned professional.

Norton built up a steady string of wins, including some over fringe contenders like the giant Jack O'Halloran. But he suffered a surprise defeat, ironically just after Ring magazine had profiled him as a prospect, at the hands of Jose Luis Garcia in 1970. It was Garcia's career peak.

Norton was given the motivational book Think and Grow Rich by Napoleon Hill,[5][6] which, as he states in his autobiography, Going the Distance, changed his life (Norton, et al., 2000, p. 46). Upon reading it, he went on a 14-fight winning streak, including a shocking victory over Muhammad Ali in 1973 to win the North American Boxing Federation heavyweight champion title.[7] [8] To quote Norton from his autobiography noted above "These words (from Napoleon Hill's Think and Grow Rich) were the final inspiration in my victory over Ali: Life's battles dont always go to the stronger or faster man, but sooner or later the man who wins is the man who thinks he can."[9]

An article which appeared in The Southeast Missourian [10]discussed that Norton credited Napoleon Hill's philosophy for his success. To quote from the article "Norton says he's a believer in Napoleon Hill's philosophy, that a person can do anything he puts his mind to. 'So I train for my fights,' he says, 'mentally as well as physically. One thing I do is only watch films of the fights in which I've done well or in which my opponent has done poorly.'"

Ken Norton once said, "In boxing, and in all of life, nobody should ever stop learning!"[11]

Versus Ali, first & second matchesEdit

'Name' opponents were elusive in Norton's early career. His first big break came with a clear win over respected contender Henry Clark. This helped get him his world recognition break when Ali agreed to a match. Joe Frazier, who'd sparred with Norton, presciently said of Ali, "He'll have plenty of trouble!" Though both were top boxers in the 1970s, Norton and Frazier never fought each other.

On March 31, 1973, Muhammad Ali entered the ring at the San Diego Sports Arena[12] wearing a robe given to him by Elvis Presley as a 5-1 favorite versus Ken Norton in a bout televised by ABC's Wide World of Sports.[13] Norton won a 12-round split decision over Ali in his adopted hometown of San Diego to win the NABF heavyweight title.[8] In this bout, Norton broke Ali's jaw (he maintains in round eleven, though Angelo Dundee said it was earlier), leading to only the second defeat for "The Greatest" in his career. (Ali's only previous loss was to Joe Frazier, and Ali would later go on to defeat George Foreman to regain the heavyweight title in 1974.)

Almost six months later, on September 10, 1973, Ali avenged the Norton loss, but only just, when he got the return by another split decision. Norton weighed in at 205 lbs (5 pounds lighter than his first match with Ali) and boxing scribes discussed that his preparation was too intense and that perhaps he had overtrained. There were some furious exchanges in this hard-fought battle. From Ali's point of view, a loss here would have seriously dented his claim of ever being "The Greatest".

Championship challenge against ForemanEdit

In 1974, Norton fought George Foreman for the World Heavyweight Championship but was stopped in two rounds.

In 1975, Norton regained the NABF heavyweight title when he impressively defeated Jerry Quarry by TKO in the fifth round. Norton then avenged his above-mentioned 1970 loss to Jose Luis Garcia by decisively knocking out Garcia in round five.

Third Ali matchEdit

[This section cites no references or sources]

In 1976 Norton would again fight Ali, who was now the world heavyweight champion since regaining the title with an eighth-round knockout of George Foreman in 1974. Many observers have felt this was the beginning of Ali's decline as a boxer. In one of the most disputed fights in history, the fight was even on the judges' scorecards going into the final round, which Ali won on both the referee's and judges' scorecards to retain the world heavyweight championship. The judges scored the bout 8-7 for Ali, and the referee scored it 8-6 for Ali.

At the time of the third Ali-Norton bout, the last time a heavyweight champion had lost the title by decision was Max Baer to Jim Braddock 41 years earlier, and Ali-Norton III did not set a new marker. The January 1998 issue of Boxing Monthly listed Ali-Norton as the fifth most disputed title fight decision in boxing history. The unofficial UPI scorecard was 8-7 for Norton, and the unofficial AP scorecard was 9-6 for Ali. But Ali had received a pounding. His tactics were to try to push Norton back, but they had failed. He'd refused to 'dance' until the 11th in sheer desperation, although the crowd then roared its appreciation. Norton has said the third fight with Ali was the last boxing match for which he was fully motivated, owing to his disappointment at having lost a fight he believed he had clearly won.

Aftermath: Norton becomes championEdit

1977 was a key year for Norton. He knocked out previously unbeaten top prospect Duane Bobick in one round, and after despatching European title holder Lorenzo Zannon easily, he beat number two contender Jimmy Young (who himself had beaten George Foreman and Jody Ballard) in a 15-round split decision in a WBC big mandatory title-elimination fight, with the winner to face reigning WBC champion Ali, but Ali's camp told Ring Magazine they did not want to fight Norton for a fourth time. Both boxers fought a smart fight; however, observers thought the decision controversial.

Plans, however, changed on February 15, 1978. On that night, in front of a nationwide television audience, Ali lost his title to Leon Spinks. The WBC then ordered a match between the new champion and its number one contender, but Spinks chose instead to give the fallen champion the first shot at taking his title [14] rather than face the still dangerous Norton.[15] The WBC responded on March 18, 1978, by retroactively giving title fight status to Norton's victory over Young the year before and awarded Norton their championship, which split the heavyweight championship for the first time since Jimmy Ellis and Joe Frazier were both recognized as champions in the early 1970s.[16][17]

Larry Holmes title fightEdit

In his first defense of the WBC title on June 9, 1978, Norton and new #1 contender Larry Holmes met in a classic fight. After 15 brutal rounds, Holmes was awarded the title via an extremely close split decision. The three judges' cards were as follows: 143-142 for Holmes, 143-142 for Holmes, and 143-142 for Norton.[18] The Associated Press scored it 143-142 for Norton. [19] The March 2001 edition of The Ring magazine listed the final round of the Holmes-Norton bout as the 7th most exciting round in boxing history. As noted above, Holmes-Norton is ranked as the 10th greatest heavyweight fight of all time by Monte D. Cox, a member of the International Boxing Research Organization (IBRO). Holmes went on to become the second-longest reigning world heavyweight champion in the history of boxing, behind Joe Louis. Holmes years later wrote of his experience that this was his toughest match in over 70 contests.

Retirement loomsEdit

After losing to Holmes, Norton won his next fight by knockout over sixth-ranked Randy Stephens in 1978[20] before taking on Earnie Shavers in a WBC title eliminator fight in Las Vegas on March 23, 1979. It appeared for the first time that Norton's career had perhaps hit a decline, as Shavers took the former champion out in the first round (Norton's peak was 1973-1978.)[21] Then, in his next fight, he fought to a draw with future contender Scott LeDoux at the Met Center in Minneapolis. Norton carried the day until sustaining an injury when he took a thumb in the eye in the eighth round, which immediately changed the bout. LeDoux rallied from that point and Norton became decidedly fatigued. Norton was down two times in the final round, resulting in the draw; Norton fell behind on one scorecard, kept his lead on the second, and dropped to even on the third (the unofficial AP scorecard was 5-3-2 Norton).[22]

After the fight, Norton decided that at 37 it was time to retire from boxing.[23] However, not satisfied with the way he had gone out, Norton returned to the ring to face the undefeated Randall "Tex" Cobb in Cobb's home state of Texas on November 7, 1980. In a back-and-forth fight, Norton escaped with a split decision, with referee Tony Perez and judge Chuck Hassett voting in his favor and judge Arlen Bynum giving the fight to Cobb.

The win over the title contending Cobb gave Norton another shot at a potential title fight, and on May 11, 1981. at Madison Square Garden he stepped into the ring with top contender Gerry Cooney, who like Cobb was undefeated entering the fight. Very early in the fight it became clear that Norton was no longer the caliber of fighter he once was, as Cooney's first punch caused Norton's legs to buckle. Norton continued to take shots from Cooney in his corner for nearly a full minute before Perez, who refereed his last fight, stepped in to stop the bout 54 seconds in, as Norton was slumped in his corner. Norton decided to retire following the match and turned his attention to charitable pursuits.[24] Norton's enduring legacy as a fighter is that he is considered second to Joe Frazier as Ali's main nemesis and toughest opponent. Norton fought Ali to three decisions and was never hurt or knocked down. All three bouts were close and subject to controversy. Unfortunately, Norton was less successful against three of the greatest punchers of all time, losing by KO to Foreman and Shavers and by TKO to Cooney.[25] Norton was considered past his prime in boxing from 1979 to 1981.[21]

Awards and recognitionsEdit

Ken Norton is a 1989 inductee of the World Boxing Hall of Fame,[26] a 1992 inductee of the International Boxing Hall Of Fame,[27] a 2004 inductee into the United States Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame,[3] and a 2008 inductee into the WBC Hall of Fame.

The 1998 holiday issue of The Ring ranked Norton #22 among "The 50 Greatest Heavyweights of All Time." Norton received the Boxing Writers Association of America J. Niel trophy for "Fighter of the Year" in 1977.

Norton, a proponent of motivational author Napoleon Hill's writings [28] (e.g. Think and Grow Rich [7][29] as noted above and Success Through A Positive Mental Attitude [15] by Hill and W. Clement Stone) also received the "Napoleon Hill Award" for positive thinking in 1973 (Norton, et al., 2000, p. 46).

In 2001, Norton was inducted by the San Diego Hall of Champions into the Breitbard Hall of Fame honoring San Diego's finest athletes both on and off the playing surface.[3] Norton was also inducted into the California Sports Hall of Fame in 2011 [30]

StyleEdit

Norton was a forward, pressing fighter/boxer who was distinguishable for an unusual blocking/coverup style characterised by arms held across the torso or head, with the left arm lowest and right hand sometimes up by the right or left ear (reminiscent of Archie Moore). This style is referred to as a "cross-armed defense". He'd then bob and weave his way in with well placed heavy punches. George Foreman later used the same guard during his comeback, as did Tim Witherspoon. It tends to look crablike. Norton was best when advancing. He'd drag or slide the right foot behind notably. Most conventional boxers have elbows in and forearms vertical alongside one another with both gloves being near the face. Most trainers believe the conventional style is a better defence and that the cross-arm leaves the user open far too often.

But Norton's style was in itself fascinating. Norton gave Ali more trouble than anyone else in history over three matches—no small feat by any standard. He could, as they say in the trade, 'box' or 'fight'. Norton was never fazed by Ali's various famous tactics like clinching or rope-a-dope. In fact, Ali usually found rope-a-dope a particularly unpleasant experience with Norton, as Ken would get many punches through. Ali's famous clinching and holding or launching sharp shots from a distance were all for various reasons not as effective as when Ali fought Frazier, the only other man he fought three times.

Angelo Dundee wrote that Ken's best punch was the left hook. Many others lauded his overhand right. In a Ring Magazine article, Norton himself said that a right uppercut to Jerry Quarry was the hardest blow he recalled landing.

Unlike many boxers, Norton would often not attempt to stare down an opponent while announcements were made before the match started. Instead, he'd often look down at the floor and gather his thoughts. He was also widely noted for his fine athletic build.

TV and film careerEdit

Norton has appeared in approximately twenty motion pictures. Norton additionally worked as a television and radio sports commentator and appeared in popular TV series, such as jailbird "Jackhammer" Jackson in "Pros and Cons", an early first-season episode of The A-Team (filmed 1982, broadcast 1983), and as boxer Bo Keeler in the fourth season Knight Rider episode "Redemption of a Champion" (1986). Norton also appeared on the Superstars sports competition on ABC TV (1976) and was a member of the Sports Illustrated Speakers Bureau. The character of "Apollo Creed" in Rocky was initially going to be played by Norton. However, when he pulled out, Carl Weathers was selected.

Car crashEdit

Norton continued making TV, radio and public speaking appearances until suffering injuries in a near-fatal car accident in 1986. It left him with slow and slurred speech.[31][32][33]

Video & AutobiographyEdit

He appeared along with Ali, Foreman, Frazier and Holmes in a Video titled "Champions forever" discussing their best times and in 2000 he published his autobiography titled "Going the Distance". ISBN 1-58261-225-0

FamilyEdit

Ken Norton was twice voted "Father of the Year" by the Los Angeles Sentinel and the Los Angeles Times in 1977.[34][29] To quote Norton from his biography, Believe: Journey From Jacksonville: "Of all the titles that I've been privileged to have, the title of 'dad' has always been the best." [35]

His son, Ken Norton Jr, played football at UCLA and had a long successful career in the NFL. In tribute to his father's boxing career, Ken Jr. would strike a boxing stance in the end zone each time he scored a defensive touchdown and throw a punching combination at the goalpost pad. He is now the linebackers' coach for the Seattle Seahawks.

Ken Norton's other son, Keith Norton, was once the weekend sports anchor for KPRC in Houston, Texas.[36]

Professional boxing record Edit

42 Wins (33 knockouts), 7 Losses, 1 Draw [4]
Result Record Opponent Type Round Date Location Notes
Loss 42-7-1 United States Gerry Cooney TKO 1 (10) 11/05/1981 United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States
Win 42-6-1 United States Randall Cobb SD 10 07/11/1980 United States HemisFair Arena, San Antonio, Texas, United States Prior the Norton-Cobb matchup, Cobb beat Earnie Shavers by TKO in 8ht on August 2, 1980. Incidentally, Ken Norton was the Color Analyst for the TV broadcast of the Cobb-Shavers fight.
Draw 41-6-1 United States Scott LeDoux PTS 10 19/08/1979 United States Metropolitan Sports Center, Bloomington, Minnesota, United States Norton was knocked down twice in round 10.
Loss 41–6 United States Earnie Shavers KO 1 (12) 23/03/1979 United States Hilton Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 41–5 United States Randy Stephens KO 3 (10) 10/11/1978 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Norton hit Stephens with a good shot in the 3rd round that staggered him.
Loss 40–5 United States Larry Holmes SD 15 09/06/1978 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Lost WBC Heavyweight title. Norton was late in his prime for his first title defense vs. Holmes, who was early in his peak.
Win 40–4 United States Jimmy Young SD 15 05/11/1977 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Eliminator for WBC Heavyweight title. Shortly after this fight, Norton was awarded the WBC title as Leon Spinks signed to fight Muhammad Ali in a rematch instead of WBC #1 ranked Norton.
Win 39–4 Italy Lorenzo Zanon KO 5 (10) 14/09/1977 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 38–4 United States Duane Bobick TKO 1 (12) 11/05/1977 United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States
Loss 37–4 United States Muhammad Ali UD 15 28/09/1976 United States Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, United States For WBC & WBA Heavyweight titles.
Win 37–3 United States Larry Middleton TKO 10 (10) 10/07/1976 United States Sports Arena, San Diego, California, United States This fight was billed as "The Battle of the Jaw Breakers" as Middleton had broken Joe Bugner's jaw and Norton had broken Muhammed Ali's jaw.
Win 36–3 United States Ron Stander TKO 5 (12) 30/04/1976 United States Capital Centre, Landover, Maryland, United States
Win 35–3 Argentina Pedro Lovell TKO 5 (10) 10/01/1976 United States Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 34–3 22x20px Jose Luis Garcia KO 5 (10) 14/08/1975 United States Civic Center, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States Garcia was knocked down once in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th rounds.
Win 33–3 United States Jerry Quarry TKO 5 (12) 24/03/1975 United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States Won vacant NABF Heavyweight title. Title had been vacated by Muhammad Ali.
Win 32–3 United States Rico Brooks KO 1 (10) 04/03/1975 United States Red Carpet Inn, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
Win 31–3 United States Boone Kirkman RTD 7 (10) 25/06/1974 United States Seattle Center Coliseum, Seattle, Washington, Washington, United States Kirkman was knocked down in the 7th, and did not answer the bell for the 8th round.
Loss 30–3 United States George Foreman TKO 2 (15) 26/03/1974 22x20px El Poliedro, Caracas, Venezuela For WBC & WBA Heavyweight titles. Norton down 3 times. This fight would became known as the "Caracas Caper"
Loss 30–2 United States Muhammad Ali SD 12 10/09/1973 United States Forum, Inglewood, California, United States {{Lost NABF Heavyweight title.}}
Win 30–1 United States Muhammad Ali SD 12 31/03/1973 United States Sports Arena, San Diego, California, United States Won NABF Heavyweight title. Ali suffered a broken jaw during this bout. There were no knockdowns.
Win 29–1 United States Charlie Reno UD 10 13/12/1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 28–1 United States Henry Clark KO 9 (10) 21/11/1972 United States Sahara Tahoe Hotel, Stateline, Nevada, United States
Win 27–1 United States James J. Woody TKO 8 (10) 30/06/1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 26–1 United States Herschel Jacobs UD 10 05/06/1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 25–1 United States Jack O'Halloran UD 10 17/03/1972 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Win 24–1 United States Charlie Harris KO 3 (?) 17/02/1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 23–1 United States James J. Woody UD 10 29/09/1971 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Win 22–1 United States Chuck Haynes KO 7 (10) 07/08/1971 United States Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, California, United States
Win 21–1 United States Vic Brown KO 5 (10) 12/06/1971 United States Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, California, United States
Win 20–1 United States Steve Carter TKO 3 (10) 12/06/1971 United States Valley Music Theatre, Woodland Hills, California, United States
Win 19–1 United States Robie Harris KO 2 (?) 16/10/1970 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Win 18–1 United States Chuck Leslie UD 10 26/09/1970 United States Valley Music Theatre, Woodland Hills, California, United States
Win 17–1 United States Roy Wallace KO 4 (?) 29/08/1970 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Loss 16–1 22x20px Jose Luis Garcia KO 8 (10) 02/07/1970 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States Norton knocked down in 1st and 8th rounds.
Win 16–0 United States Ray Junior Ellis KO 2 (?) 08/05/1970 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 15–0 United States Bob Mashburn KO 4 (10) 07/04/1970 United States Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Win 14–0 United States Stamford Harris TKO 3 (10) 13/03/1970 United States Coliseum, Arena, San Diego, California, United States
Win 13–0 United States Aaron Eastling KO 2 (10) 04/02/1970 United States Coliseum, Silver Slipper, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 12–0 Julius Garcia KO 3 (10) 21/10/1969 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 11–0 United States Gary Bates KO 8 (10) 25/07/1969 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 10–0 United States Bill McMurray TKO 7 (10) 25/07/1969 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States A cut over McMurray's left eye, ended the bout.
Win 9–0 22x20px Pedro Sanchez TKO 2 (10) 31/03/1969 United States Sports Arena, San Diego, California, United States
Win 8–0 United States Wayne Kindred TKO 9 (10) 20/02/1969 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States
Win 7–0 United States Joe Hemphill TKO 3 (10) 11/02/1969 United States Valley Music Theatre, Woodland Hills, California, United States
Win 6–0 United States Cornell Nolan KO 6 (10) 08/12/1968 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States
Win 5–0 United States Wayne Kindred TKO 6 (10) 23/07/1968 United States Circle Arts Theater, San Diego, California, United States
Win 4–0 United States Jimmy Gilmore KO 7 (8) 26/03/1968 United States Community Concourse, San Diego, California, United States
Win 3–0 United States Harold Dutra KO 3 (6) 06/02/1968 United States Memorial Auditorium, Sacramento, California, United States Norton knocked down in the 2nd round.
Win 2–0 United States Sam Wyatt PTS 6 16/01/1968 United States Community Concourse, San Diego, California, United States
Win 1–0 United States Grady Brazell KO 5 (6) 14/11/1967 United States Community Concourse, San Diego, California, United States

NotesEdit

  1. Rocky The Movie: The Kenny Norton Story or the Real Apollo Creed? by Joseph de Beauchamp
  2. books.google.com
  3. 3.0 3.1 MCCS Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame article about Ken Norton
  4. Best Late Bloomers in Sports, Eric Newman, Bleacher Report, April 25, 2013
  5. Hypnotist Aided Norton - Confidence Key To Upset Of Ali, AP, April 2, 1973
  6. [1] Positive attitude key to Norton's boxing, AP, March 27, 1975
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Jim Murray Column, 1973 Los Angeles Times
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ken Norton: The Man Who Shut Up Ali | The History Rat, by R.T. Johnson, March 16, 2012
  9. Norton, Ken; et al. (2000). Going the Distance, p. 60, Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-225-0
  10. The Southeast Missourian - March 12, 1976
  11. The Ring Magazine [page 43], September, 1976
  12. Maffei, John (July 6, 2013). "Sports site No. 3: San Diego Sports Arena". U-T San Diego (San Diego, CA: MLIM Holdings). http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2013/jul/06/travel-top-50-sites-sports-arena-john-ooden/. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  13. [2] Metta Chronicles | Today in Sports History | Elvis and Ali
  14. Spinks Snub Miffs Norton, 1978 AP
  15. 15.0 15.1 No. 1 Contender - Norton only boxer behaving like a champion, 1978 N.Y. Times News Service
  16. Marine Corps Community Services: Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame's article about Ken Norton
  17. Norton-Young Bout May Be for the Title, The Milwaukee Journal, Nov. 5, 1977
  18. "The judges' cards for Holmes vs. Norton". boxrec.com. http://boxrec.com/media/index.php/Ken_Norton_vs._Larry_Holmes. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  19. Associated Press, June 10, 1978
  20. A Lesson in Manliness From the Ex-Marine: Ken Norton, The Art of Manliness, November 12, 2012
  21. 21.0 21.1 Data Boxing, Dr. Julian Compton, Boxing Historian
  22. UPI Newspaper Article, LeDoux, Norton draw, August 20, 1979
  23. Norton, Ken; et al. (2000). Going the Distance, p. 164, Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-225-0.
  24. Ken Norton: Now He's Fighting For Children, Will Grimsley, Special AP Correspondent, Nov. 10, 1979
  25. The 100 Greatest Punchers of All Time!
  26. World Boxing Hall of Fame Inductees
  27. International Boxing Hall of Fame article about Ken Norton
  28. Norton Has Philosophy Of Success, AP, July 28, 1973
  29. 29.0 29.1 Believe: Journey From Jacksonville, Norton, Ken; Hennessey, Donald, Jr. & Amodeo, John (2009). 1st World Publishing, Fairfield, IA ISBN 978-1-4218-9119-4
  30. California Sports Hall of Fame
  31. Ken Norton Is Now Fighting Back: Former Champ Is Learning to Talk Again After 1986 Car Accident, 1987 Los Angeles Times
  32. Ken Norton Jr. helps father overcome crippling injuries, Phil Rosenthal, Daily News Los Angeles, October 4, 1986
  33. Believe: Journey From Jacksonville, Norton, Ken; Hennessey, Donald, Jr. & Amodeo, John (2009). 1st World Publishing, Fairfield, IA ISBN 978-1-4218-9119-4.
  34. Ken Norton: Two-Time Father of the Year, The Art of Manliness, June 17,2012
  35. Believe: Journey From Jacksonville, Norton, Ken; Hennessey, Donald, Jr. & Amodeo, John (2009). 1st World Publishing, Fairfield, IA ISBN 978-1-4218-9119-4.
  36. KPRC Houston Sports News Story

ReferencesEdit

  • Norton, Ken; et al. (2000). Going the Distance. Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-225-0.
  • Norton, Ken; Hennessey, Donald, Jr. & Amodeo, John (2009). Believe: Journey From Jacksonville. Fairfield, IA: 1st World Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4218-9119-4.

External linksEdit

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Leon Spinks
Stripped
WBC Heavyweight Champion
1978
Succeeded by
Larry Holmes
Preceded by
U.S. Olympic Boxing Gold Medalists - Sugar Ray Leonard,
Leo Randolph, Howard Davis, Jr.,
Leon Spinks and Michael Spinks
BWAA Fighter of the Year
1977
Succeeded by
Larry Holmes

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